Why is the correct spelling Planning not Planing

If the verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant and add ING.

Infinitive ING form
to stop stopping
to sit sitting
to plan planning
to get getting
to swim swimming

Examples:
1.The policeman is stopping the traffic.
2.We are planning a surprise party for our teacher.
3.I think I am getting a cold.

The English language has no universal rule for when to double a consonant before the suffix “-ing”.

As evidence that there is no universal rule, consider the word “travel.” It ends consonant-vowel-consonant, but both the forms “travelling” and “traveling” are widely used. Writers of US English usually write “traveling” (but sometimes write “travelling”), while other writers usually write “travelling” (but sometimes write “traveling”).

In short, there are educated, literate, native English speakers using the spelling “traveling” as well as the spelling “travelling”; which spelling they use is correlated with (but not completely determined by) whether they are considered “American English” writers.

The word “happen” also ends consonant-vowel-consonant, but almost everybody writes “happening” rather than “happenning”, “editing” rather than “editting”, and “orbiting” rather than “orbitting”.

The explanation I recall from grade school for why we double the final consonant of certain words when adding certain suffixes (such as “-ed” or “-ing”) because to add the suffix without doubling the final consonant would cause the preceding vowel to change from a short vowel to a long vowel.

Compare the “silent E” rule that explains the difference in pronunciation between “cap” and “cape”, between “kit” and “kite”, or between “not” and “note”, and observe what happens when a “silent E” word takes the suffix “-ing”: the final “silent E” is deleted and “-ing” substituted in its place, for example, “to bite” becomes “biting”.

In fact:

“siting” is a form of the verb “to site”;
“planing” is a form of the verb “to plane;” and
“stoping” is a form of the verb “to stope”.
I never knew “stope” was a word until I researched this question, but I was fairly sure that if it were a word, it would rhyme with “hope” (which it does), and that “stoping” would be pronounced differently from “stopping.” That is how strong the “silent E” rule is in English.

The “silent E” rule and the rules for doubling the final consonant after a short vowel are weakened when the final syllable is not stressed. For example, “approximate” can rhyme with “mate” or be a near-rhyme with “mitt”, depending on whether it is a verb or an adjective (at least in US English). Likewise, we have already seen the lack of a doubled consonant before “-ing” in “happening”, “editing”, and “orbiting”. And of course even with stressed syllables there are pesky exceptions, such as “living” and “giving” (forms of the verbs “live” and “give”, which also break the “silent E” rule).

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Because so-called long vowels (a, e, i, o, and u, when pronounced “like their letter name”) and diphthongs do not require a doubled consonant to form the participle.

Compare hating or waiting with batting, for example.
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The English language has no universal rule for when to double a consonant before the suffix “-ing”.

As evidence that there is no universal rule, consider the word “travel.” It ends consonant-vowel-consonant, but both the forms “travelling” and “traveling” are widely used. Writers of US English usually write “traveling” (but sometimes write “travelling”), while other writers usually write “travelling” (but sometimes write “traveling”).

In short, there are educated, literate, native English speakers using the spelling “traveling” as well as the spelling “travelling”; which spelling they use is correlated with (but not completely determined by) whether they are considered “American English” writers.

The word “happen” also ends consonant-vowel-consonant, but almost everybody writes “happening” rather than “happenning”, “editing” rather than “editting”, and “orbiting” rather than “orbitting”.

The explanation I recall from grade school for why we double the final consonant of certain words when adding certain suffixes (such as “-ed” or “-ing”) because to add the suffix without doubling the final consonant would cause the preceding vowel to change from a short vowel to a long vowel.

Compare the “silent E” rule that explains the difference in pronunciation between “cap” and “cape”, between “kit” and “kite”, or between “not” and “note”, and observe what happens when a “silent E” word takes the suffix “-ing”: the final “silent E” is deleted and “-ing” substituted in its place, for example, “to bite” becomes “biting”.

In fact:

“siting” is a form of the verb “to site”;
“planing” is a form of the verb “to plane;” and
“stoping” is a form of the verb “to stope”.
I never knew “stope” was a word until I researched this question, but I was fairly sure that if it were a word, it would rhyme with “hope” (which it does), and that “stoping” would be pronounced differently from “stopping.” That is how strong the “silent E” rule is in English.

The “silent E” rule and the rules for doubling the final consonant after a short vowel are weakened when the final syllable is not stressed. For example, “approximate” can rhyme with “mate” or be a near-rhyme with “mitt”, depending on whether it is a verb or an adjective (at least in US English). Likewise, we have already seen the lack of a doubled consonant before “-ing” in “happening”, “editing”, and “orbiting”. And of course even with stressed syllables there are pesky exceptions, such as “living” and “giving” (forms of the verbs “live” and “give”, which also break the “silent E” rule).
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The motivation for the spelling rule (which the Woodward English site does not specify) is that we don’t want adding “-ing” to change the length of the final vowel (the one before the consonant). A single vowel before a single consonant at the end of a word is usually short, but a single vowel before a single consonant before another vowel is usually long. Thus, adding “-ing” to a word like “stop” without doubling the consonant would result in the spelling “stoping” (which is a different, and rare, word), and this would indicate that the vowel was long. Since this would violate the “no vowel length change” rule, we double the consonant (“stopping”), which indicates that the previous vowel should remain short.

Vowels that are already long don’t need the spelling change. Even after adding “-ing” (“eating”, “hating”), the vowels will remain long. As you may know, the fact that a vowel is long in a word such as “eat” or “hate” is often indicated by a silent vowel, either immediately after the first one (like the “a” in “eat”) or separated from it by a single consonant (like the “e” in “hate”).

Meanwhile, in words where there is a final “e”, but the vowel is short anyway (“live”, “have”), the shortness of the vowel is so programmed into an English speaker’s head that adding “ing” without doubling the consonant (“living”, “having”) doesn’t cause a net change in the way we pronounce the word. That’s why rule (1) on the Woodward page says that if the verb ends with an “e”, you drop it and don’t double the consonant. The same principle applies to words such as “head”, where there is a silent vowel following the spoken one, but the initial vowel is short. Thus, “heading” is also pronounced with a short “e”.

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This rule works if you consider letters, not sounds. CVC should be letters and the correct addition is that the syllable should be stressed. Then the rule works almost in all cases. Travelling/traveling seems to be the only exception.Consider the following examples:

hop (CVstressedC)+p +ing, edit(e-dit)CV unstressed C)+ ing.
The aim of this process is not to change the pronunciation of the vowel.We can check it

hop-ping (not ho-ping)
Eat doesn’t correspond to the CVC, so “eating” will be a correct form.

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