What is Bandwidth ? What is Datarate ? How Bandwidth effects datarate ?

When we are sending a signal that may be a voice, data, music or video. The process used to transmit signals from one place to another is known as communication. The medium used for this process is called communication medium or channel.
Suppose we say something to another person. He can listen it up to a certain distance. If he is far away from us, he can’t listen us. But if we say something through mobile phone then he can listen.

Working Procedure : First we are sending some information from source. The source may be our mouth or any other source. The message signal which is sound in this case can’t go far. So we used a transmitter which will transmit the signal. This transmitter converts the message signal to transmitted signal which can be transmitted through the medium or channel. Received signal at the other end receives by the receiver. Receiver converts to the received signal and give the destination the message signal which was originally received.

Range : Range is the distance up to which our signal can reach.

Bandwidth : A group or range of frequencies which are getting transmitted. The bandwidth of a signal therefore depends on the kind of information that is being sent through the signal. The type of communication system used in sending and receiving signal in turn depends on the bandwidth used for the signal.

For Example :
1.Speech transmission such as a telephonic conversation then the required range of frequencies is from 300 Hz to 3100 Hz. Therefor the bandwidth for voice transmission is 3100-300=2800 Hz.
2.If the signal to be transmitted is music then the range of frequencies is from 20 Hz to 20000 Hz. This is because apart from the vocals used in the song, the musical instruments produce sound vary from very low to very high frequency. Therefore the bandwidth required for the transmission of music signals is nearly 20000 Hz.
3. Transmission of video signal requires a bandwidth of 4.2 MHz, and transmission of video and audio signal requires a bandwidth of about 6 MHz.

Bandwidth & Data Rate:
– Bandwidth is the inherent property of the media.
– Data rate is the amount of data passing through.
– The data rate has some dependency on the bandwidth.
– Maximum data rate is decided by the media bandwidth.
– Bandwidth also depends on the width and length of the medium
Example :
– A copper cable of category 6A can provide 500 Mbps for 100-meter distance.
– Provide speeds in excess of 10 GB if the distance is reduced to 1 meter.
– For 500 meters, the capacity may reduce to 100 Mb or less.


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